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Indian History for Competitive Exams-Ancient India / Harappa Civilization

1- The Harappan civilization was discovered in the year
A.1901 B.1921 C.1935 D.1942 E.None of these
Answer  -  B (1921)

2- Lothal is a site where dockyard of which of the following civilization were found?
A.Indus valley B.Mesopotamian C.Egyptian D.Persian E.None of these
Answer  -  A (Indus valley)

3- The people of the Indus valley civilization usually built their houses of
A.pucca bricks B.stone C.wood D.all of these E.None of these
Answer  -  A (pucca bricks)

4- The Indus valley people traded with the
A.Chinese B.Mesopotamians C.Parthians D.Romans E.None of these
Answer  -  B (Mesopotamians)

5- The Indus valley civilization was Non-Aryan because was urban has a pictographic script had an agricultural economy extended up to the Narmada Valley E.None of these
Answer  -  A (it was urban)

6- The local name Mohenjodaro is
A.Mound of the living B.Mound of the Great C.Mound of the Dead D.Mound of the Survivor E.None of these
Answer  -  C (Mound of the Dead)

7- The Indus valley civilization specialized in planning B.architecture C.craftsmanship D.All of these E.None of these
Answer  -  A (town planning)

8- The famous figure of a dancing girl found in the excavation of Mohenjodaro was made up of
A.terracotta B.steatite C.bronze limestone E.None of these
Answer  -  C (bronze)

9- Which of the following animals was not known to the Indus valley civilization
A.bull C.elephant D.Giraffe E.None of these
Answer  -  D (Giraffe)

10- Out of the following remains excavated in Indus valley which one indicates the commercial and economic development?
A.pottery B.seals D.houses E.None of these
Answer  -  B (seals)

11- The earliest city discovered in India was
A.Harappa B.Rangpur C.Mohenjodaro D.Sindh E.None of these
Answer  -  A (Harappa)

12- Which one of the following Indus civilization site gives evidence of a dockyard?
A.Harappa B.Lothal C.Mohenjodaro D.Rakhigarhi E.None of these
Answer  -  B (Lothal)

13- An advanced water management system of Harappan times has been unearthed at
A.Dholavira B.Lothal C.Kalibangan D.Alamgirpur E.None of these
Answer  -  A (Dholavira)

14- From which one of the following places, remains of wells have been found in houses belonging to the developed stage of the Indus valley civilization?
A.Harappa B.Kalibangan C.Lothal D.Mohenjodaro E.None of these
Answer  -  D (Mohenjodaro)

15- The archaeological finds from Alamgirapur in Ghaziabad district reflected the
A.Harappa culture B.Vedic culture C.Mauryana culture D.Gupta period culture E.None of these
Answer  -  A (Harappa culture)

16- Cotton for textile was first cultivated in-
A.Egypt B.Mesopotamia C.Central America D.India E.None of these
Answer  -  D (India)

17- Rock cut architecture in Harappa culture context has been found at
A.Kalibangan B.Dholavira C.Kotdiji D.Amri E.None of these
Answer  -  B (Dholavira)

18- Which one of the following was not known to the Harappas?
A.Construction of wells B.Construction of pillars C.Construction of drains D.Construction of arches E.None of these
Answer  -  B (Construction of pillars)

19- A copper chariot of Harappa times was discovered at-
A.Kuntal B.Rakhigarhi C.Daimabad D.Banawali E.None of these
Answer  -  C (Daimabad)

20- One of the following from where the famous Bullseal of Indus valley civilization was found?
A.Harappa B.Chanhudaro C.Lothal D.Mohenjodaro E.None of these
Answer  -  A (Harappa)

21- Who discovered the Indus valley civilization
A.Sir Leonard Wooley B.V.S. Agarwal C.Dayaram Sahni D.A.l. Basham E.None of these
Answer  -  C (Dayaram Sahni)

Important Historical Places

Ahichhatra: Originally Ahikshetra in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh was once the capital of Panchalas.
Aihole: Situated in Karnataka contains chief sites of Chalukyan architecture—nearly 50 structural stone temples. Ajanta Caves: Situated 66 miles north of Aurangabad in Maharashtra State. These are rock-cut Buddhist caves. These caves represent a record of unique painting, sculpture and architecture of the period from about the 2nd century B.C. to about 7th century A.D.
Amaravati: A historical site near modern Vijaywada, believed to have flourished under the Satavahana dynasty.
Arikamedu: It was a seaport near Pondicherry during Chola times.
Ayodhya: Situated in modern Faizabad (UP), was capital of the Kosala. Birth place of Lord Rama.
Badami (or Vatapi): Situated in Karnataka is wellknown for Chalukyan sculpture found in the cave temples here. These are groups of Hindu temples dating back to 7th or 8th century and are examples of pure Dravidian architecture.
Bodh Gaya: It is situated six miles south of Gaya in Bihar State. It is famous as the place where Buddha got enlightenment.
Belur: Situated in Karnataka is famous for its elaborately sculptured Cheena Kesava temple of the Hoysala period.
Bhubaneswar: Situated in Orissa and is known for ancient temples viz., Rajarani; Lingraja; Brahmesvara.
Chidambaram: A town 150 miles south of Chennai was once the capital of the Chola kingdom. Its temples are among the oldest in India and are gems of Dravidian architecture. It is famous as the abode of Natraja, the Dancing Siva.
Elephanta Caves: Situated on the island of the same name about 6 miles from Mumbai harbour are rock-cut caves of the 7th and 8th century.
 Ellora Caves: Situated about 15 miles north west of Aurangabad in Maharashtra State are about 34 caves excavated in the face of a hill.
Halebid: Situated in Karnataka, 10 miles from Belur, is well-known for its elaborately sculptured temples of the Hoysala period. The monuments rank among the masterpieces of Hindu art.
Harappa: Situated in Montgomery district of Punjab, now in West Pakistan, is known for excavations carried out here showing signs of Indus Valley Civilization.
Junagadh: Situated in Gujarat State is one of the most ancient cities of India. It is situated below the Girnar Hill. The temples on the Hill are known for their architecture and paintings.
Kalibangan: Situated in Rajasthan where recent excavations brought to light the varied achievements of Indus Valley Civilisation—town planning and use of burnt bricks.
Kanauj: It was the Capital of Harshavardhan.
Kanchipuram: Situated 45 miles south-west of Chennai is known for Kailashnath temple. It was the capital of successive dynasties of Hindu rulers.
Kapilvastu: a small ancient kingdom in the north of India; associated with Mahatma Buddha.
Khajuraho: in Chhattarpur in Madhya Pradesh is famous for its group of highly ornate mediaeval Hindu temples. Kusinagar: in the district of modern Gorakhpur, is the place where Buddha died.
Lothal: ancient town, situated on the sea-plain of former Saurashtra, 450 miles south-east of Mohenjo-Daro. The excavation made here represent the Indus Valley Civilization.
Mamallapuram (now Mahabalipuram) : Situated 53 miles from Chennai, it is known for rock-cut temples, monolithic figures and carvings of the 7th and 8th centuries A.D.

Mithila: was the home of the three scholar sages—Gargi, Maitreya and Kapila. It was the capital town of Raja Janak’s territory.
Madurai: popularly known as the “City of Festivals”, was till the 14th century the capital of the Pandyan kingdom which had sea-borne trade with Rome and Greece. It is famous for Minakshi temple.
Mohenjo-daro: in the Larkana district of Sind (now in Pakistan) is the site of excavation revealing pre-Aryan Indus Valley Civilization.
Nalanda: in Bihar was the seat of an ancient Buddhist University. It contains a group of Buddhist temples and monasteries.
Patan: (or Som Nath) in Gujarat State is the site of the famous Som Nath temple which was destroyed by Mahmud Ghazni.
Pragjyotishpur: was the capital of an ancient tribal kingdom in Kamarupa or modern Assam. (It is the new capital of Assam State).
Rajgir: 8 miles south-west of Nalanda by road is an important place of pilgrimage for Buddhists. It was the capital of Bimbisara in ancient times. The Buddha preached at Rajgir, and so did Mahavir, the great preceptor of the Jains.
Sanchi: in Madhya Pradesh is famous for the largest and the most well-preserved Buddhist Stupa (108-foot in diameter and 42-foot in height).
Sarnath: near Varanasi is the place where the Buddha delivered his first sermon after he became the “Enlightened One”. The place is known for Buddhist temples and remains.
Seringapatam: in Karnataka was the ancient capital of Tipu Sultan.
Sravanabelgola: in Karnataka is famous for its Jain temples and the colossal statue of Gomateswara—65-foot high erected in A.D. 983, the tallest monolithic in the world.
Srirangam: an island on the Cauvery river two miles north of Tiruchirapalli. It contains one of the largest temples in south India of the Vijayanagar period.
Tamralipti: A flourishing sea port in ancient India.
Tanjore: was the capital of Cholas. It is situated in the delta of the Cauvery in Tamil Nadu.
Also known for Brihadeeswara temple.
Taxila: ancient capital of Gandhara and one of the most renowned cities of ancient north west India.
Tirupati: in Andhra State, situated about 100 miles to the north-west of Chennai is one of the holiest places in South India. This hill temple of Sri Venkateswara is an example of early Dravidian architecture and is one of the finest in the south.
Ujjain: known to be the seat of king Vikrama, is situated on the Sipra in Madhya Pradesh. It is one of the seven sacred cities also known as Avanti. Mahakaleshwar temple here is known as a pilgrimage centre.
Vikramasila: was a great Tantrik University established by the Pala King Dharampala in AD 810. It was a hotbed of moral corruption, sorcery and idolatry. In AD 1198, the soldiers of Ikhtiar Khilji razed the structure to the ground and killed all the monks in the university.
Vaishali: Modern Besarch in the district of Muzzaffarpur in Bihar. It was the capital of the famous Vaishali clan in ancient India.
Kanyakumari  It is situated in Tamil Nadu and is famous for temple (the virgin goddess) . It is situated at Cape Comorin on the extreme southern tip of India where the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean meet. It is also a picturesque spot which is frequented by tourists. Also famous for Vivekanand Rock Memorial, where Swami Vivekanand meditated.

Important Battles And Wars In India

Battle of Hydaspes 326 B.C.—Alexander the Great, defeated Porus, the Paurava king. Impressed by the valour of Porus, ultimately Alexander returned his kingdom to him. 

Battle of Kalinga 261 B.C.—Ashoka defeated the king of Kalinga. Ashoka embraced Buddhism and preached it during the rest of his life after this war. 

First Battle of Tarain or Thaneswar A.D. 1191  Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated Mohammed Ghori. Second Battle of Tarain A.D. 1192—Mohammed Ghori defeated Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Ghori’s victory paved the way for the establishment of Muslim rule in India. 

First Battle of Panipat 1526—Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. This laid the foundation of the Mughal rule in India. 

Battle of Khanwah 1527— Babar defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar. This battle resulted in the defeat of the powerful Rajput confederacy. 

Second Battle of Panipat 1556—Bairam Khan (Akbar’s General) defeated Hemu (the Hindu General and right-hand man of Mohd. Adil Shah). It also ended the Afghan Rule and Mughal Rule began instead. 

Battle of Talikota 1564- 65—United alliance between Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmednagar and Golkonda under Hussain Nizam Shah defeated Ram Raja of Vijayanagar. It destroyed the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar. 

Battle of Haldighati 1576—Akbar’s forces headed by Raja Man Singh defeated Rana Pratap, the brave Rajput king. Though defeated, Rana Pratap refused to accept Mughal authority and carried on warfare till his death. 

Battle of Plassey 1757— The English under Lord Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah.It brought Muslim Rule in Bengal to an end and laid foundations of the British Rule in India. 

Battle of Wandiwash 1760—The English defeated the French. The battle sealed the fate of the French in India and paved the way for English rule in India. 

Third Battle of Panipat 1761—Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated Marathas. It gave a terrible blow to the Maratha power. It made the field clear for the English. 

Battle of Buxar 1764— Fought in 1764 between the forces of the English and the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Oudh) and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. The English victory at Buxar finally riveted the shackles of the Company’s rule upon Bengal. 

First Mysore War (1767- 68)—In 1768, Haider Ali was defeated by the English relinquishing all his rights over Mysore in favour of the English. 

Second Mysore War 1780— A grand alliance between Haider Ali, the Nizam and the Marathas was formed and Haider Ali. He defeated the English and took possession of Arcot and became the undisputed master of the Carnatic. 

Third Mysore War 1790- 92—Fought between the English and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan had to submit and was compelled to sign the Treaty of Seringapattam stripped him of half his territory. 

Fourth Mysore War 1799— The British forces under Arthur Wellesley defeated Tipu Sultan, which brought the end of the Tipu Sultan. Maratha War 1803-05—It weakened the Maratha power. The English annexed Tanjore, Surat and Carnatic. 

Fourth Maratha War 1817- 18—The British forces defeated Marathas and this campaign finally extinguished the Maratha Empire. 

Battle of Cheelianwala 1849—Forces of the East India Company under Lord Hugh Gough defeated the Sikhs under Sher Singh. 

Burmese War 1885—As a result of this War, the whole of Burma was occupied by the English and made a part of India. 

Afghan War III 1919—As a result of this War, Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed by which Afghanistan was recognised as an independent State. 

lndo-Pak War 1965—This was Pakistan’s second attack on India. While India had the upper hand, the fighting was brought to a stop by a call for ceasefire issued by the Security Council. Later on, Tashkent accord was signed between the two nations. lndo-

Pak War Dec 1971— Pakistan started the war attacking India on Dec 3. India defeated Pakistan on all fronts. Pakistani occupation forces, numbering about one lakh, in East Bengal (Bangladesh) surrendered. Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation.
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